An Analysis of Packet Sampling in the Frequency Domain, Luigi Alfredo Grieco, Chadi Barakat, in Proc. of ACM SIGCOM IMC'09, November 2009, Chicago.
I have been looking with great interest at the technical program for IMC'09 (see here and a few more papers to come). I have to say the stuff from other communities look quite exciting. Grass greener and all.
Anyway, this paper is a very cute (and simple) thing: it considers the Fourier transform of the packet size from a source-destination pair, and assesses a rule for the sampling rate in order to avoid aliasing effects when reconstructing the signal from the Fourier transform.
This is somewhat preliminary and applications to compressing the signal or to use it for anomaly detection are not presented (but hinted at). I would have thought the community of traffic measurement would have done this kind of transforms on the signal a long time ago.